This annotated bibliography focuses on quantitative research on the consequences of paternal and maternal incarceration for children that (1) attempts to control for selection using standard statistical techniques, (2) uses broadly representative data, and (3) differentiates consequences of paternal incarceration from those of maternal incarceration. Although this bibliography focuses primarily on research in the United States, a small number of studies using data from European countries are also included.
Higher Education and Reentry: The Gifts They Bring and Supplemental White Papers
This Participatory Action Research study, conducted by Michelle Fine, Alexis Halkovic (CUNY Graduate Center) and a team of research assistants, explores the lived experiences of people with criminal justice histories as they attend and contemplate enrolling in college. The report highlights the journeys of these students and considers a number of important questions: What does it take for people with criminal justice histories to successfully transform the trajectory of their lives? What are the obstacles they face? What affirmative steps can we take to make our public and private colleges and universities more welcoming to this growing population of students?
To supplement the main report, three of its contributing research assistants wrote white papers examining higher education and reentry. These papers provide additional historical context and further insights to obstacles that individuals with criminal records face when pursuing higher education. The papers consider significant issues, such as licensing restrictions imposed on formerly incarcerated applicants; how the documentation of private psychiatric histories in prison may follow a person well beyond release into job and college applications; the impact of higher education in prison, networks of support, and parole practices.
- Higher Education and Incarceration in the United States: The Intersection of Institutions
By Robert Riggs
- Checking the Box: Enduring the Stigma of Applying to Graduate School Post-Incarceration
By Andrew Cory Greene
- What Information Travels After Release?
By Desheen Evans
“Three Quarter Houses: The View from the Inside” is the first systematic and comprehensive study of Three Quarter Housing in New York City. The problem of housing New York City’s most vulnerable individuals has given rise to a growing market of privately operated, for-profit residences known as Three Quarter Houses, which have become an informal extension of the City’s apparatus for keeping vulnerable men and women off of the streets. Yet these residences lack any formal regulation or oversight, rendering the houses invisible to most citizens and policymakers.
The report’s findings are based on 317 known addresses and first-hand accounts of 43 current or recent residents of the houses. The report paints a harrowing picture of the conditions in these dwellings. The residents tend to be in the midst of major life transitions; most are returning home from jail or prison, recovering from short-term hospital or residential substance abuse treatment, battling with street homelessness, and/or struggling with unemployment, family crises, or medical issues. The houses are overcrowded, lack basic fire safety and health provisions, and are exploitative of their residents. Still, thousands of New Yorkers rely on them, prefer them to shelters, and desperately do not want them closed. The findings of PRI’s research on Three-Quarter Houses are troubling indications of what occurs when the city’s poorest and most marginalized individuals are left with no affordable or accessible housing options and must instead fend for themselves in an unregulated, informal housing market.
The research was carried out by PRI in collaboration with MFY Legal Services, Inc., Neighbors Together, the Legal Action Center, and the Three-Quarter House Tenant Organizing Project, with technical assistance from the Furman Center of Real Estate and Urban Policy.
Funded by the National Institute of Corrections, this publication provides correctional professionals with an understanding of how to 1) build or transform correctional agencies into self-sustaining facilities; 2) identify green job training programs and jobs for prisoners that provide quality employment opportunities; and 3) make prison industry products, jobs, and services more environmentally friendly. The guide was developed in partnership with the National Institute for Work and Learning of AED, RicciGreen Associates, and The Corps Network.
The National Institute of Corrections and The Urban Institute developed the Transition from Jail to Community (TJC) Implementation Toolkit, a web-based learning resource designed to guide jurisdictions through implementation of the TJC model, in whole or in part. The Toolkit serves as a hands-on resource for users interested in jail reentry, whether in a criminal justice or community-based organization. The nine toolkit modules, which users can navigate at their own pace, incorporate examples from jurisdictions across the country, tools developed to facilitate implementation in the six current TJC learning sites, resource suggestions, and detailed content.
In partnership with The Urban Institute, PRI developed this guide for community-based organizations about establishing and sustaining meaningful and effective partnerships with their local jails. The guide includes background information about the criminal justice system and lays out an understanding of the importance of collaborating with local jails. It features profiles of partnerships from around the country that demonstrate success in improving service delivery and improved outcomes for individuals returning home.
Community opposition can be one of the greatest challenges an organization faces as it works to establish services for populations that are considered “threatening.” “Not in My Back Yard” – commonly referred to as NIMBY – resistance can result in significant program delays or even complete shutdowns. The NIMBY Toolkit focuses on helping organizations address a very specific issue when developing the capacity to provide housing to formerly incarcerated people and provides a statement of possibility for others who are seeking to house needy and feared populations. This toolkit was funded by the U.S. Department of Justice Bureau of Justice Assistance, and developed by PRI and The Fortune Society with contributions from the International Center for Cooperation and Conflict Resolution at Teachers College, Columbia University.
Funded by the United States Department of Justice and developed in collaboration with The Fortune Society, this toolkit addresses several interrelated issues regarding the successful reentry into society of formerly incarcerated men and women. First, there is a reentry crisis of unparalleled proportion currently facing communities in the United States. Because incarceration both profoundly impacts those who experience it and disproportionately affects low-income people of color, the response to it needs to be culturally competent across a spectrum of issues. Second, there is an important employment component to individuals’ reentry experiences. While stable employment is critical to the successful reintegration into society of those returning home, the formerly incarcerated nonetheless confront significant barriers to employment, including discrimination based on their conviction records. Finally – and this is the core of this toolkit – one way to address both of these issues is to build “cultural competence” within reentry services by hiring formerly incarcerated men and women to reflect the experiences and realities of the reentry population and provide services more effectively.
|Evaluation of the NYC Justice Corps: Final Report of Year One Implementation
Metis Associates authored this evaluation report of the first year of NYC Justice Corps, a community-based youth development reentry program. The report offers a comprehensive account of the program’s first 12 months from initial start-up phase through the first nine months of its launch, identifying the challenges it faced, which informed refinements to the model and operational policies for the second program year.
In partnership with The Urban Institute, PRI sponsored a national roundtable on education and reentry in Spring 2008. The meeting, made possible by funding support from the United States Departments of Education and Justice, The Achelis and Bodman Foundations, and other private funders, focused on the intersection among education, incarceration, and reentry. The two days of discussion explored the need for and current state of correctional education and identified promising programmatic and policy directions. Participants examined the broad continuum of education programs – including ABE, GED, vocational, and post-secondary – serving individuals with criminal records in prisons and jails and after release. In preparation for the Roundtable, PRI commissioned seven academic papers on related topics:
· The Current State of Correctional Education by Anna Crayton and Suzanne Neusteter
· The Impact of Prison Education Programs on Post-Release Outcomes by Gerald G. Gaes
· Structure and Components of Successful Education Programs by Doris Layton Mackenzie
· Understanding and Responding to the Education Needs of Special Populations in Adult Corrections by Peter E. Leone, Michael Wilson, and Michael P. Krezmien
· The Effective Use of Technology in Correctional Education by Cindy Borden and Penny Richardson
· Prison-Based Adult Basic Education (ABE) and Post-Release Labor Market Outcomes by Rosa Cho and John J. Tyler
· Prison Postsecondary Education: Bridging Learning from Incarceration to the Community by Jeanne Contardo and Michelle Tolbert